1)  Burge, Richard . “Coltan Mining in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” Flora & Fauna International Conservation Reports“.  2003, 11-20,

This comprehensive research paper provides an extensive overview of the coltan industry in the DRC.  The authors examine the materials, the politics, the geography, supply-chain, and several alternative models for remedying the use of “conflict” coltan.  They go on to examine the industry’s position on DRC minerals, and the likelihood that a more transparent process will reduce militia violence in the region.

2)  Coster, Helen. “Does Your Cell Phone Contain “Conflict Minerals”?.” January 5, 2011.

The author in this article takes a broad view of conflict minerals, the main actors and definitions.  The article goes on to examine the impact and cooperation of some of the major electronic mineral users.

3)  Essick, Kristi. “Guns, Money and Cell Phones, ” The Industry Standard Magazine. 11 June 2001. 

This paper explores the “economic reasons behind the war in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the commercial interests of major computer and cell phone related companies in the exploitation of the DRC”.

4)  Global Witness Report. “Faced with A Gun What can you do?” July 2009.

This 110-page paper details  “how companies are buying from suppliers who trade in minerals from the warring parties”.  It provides a broad overview of conflict minerals, the main actors, and goes further in exploring how individual militias and companies benefit from illegal mineral trade.

5)  Kors, Joshua. “Blood Mineral.” Current science 95.9.  2010: 10.

This article discusses the conflict in the DRC, with a specific eye towards the minerals, their role in technology, how they’ve fueled the conflict, and how our lust for electronics has prolonged violence.

6)  Ma, T. 2009. China and Congo’s coltan connection, Futuregram 09-003, The Project 2049 Institute. p.1

This paper’s focus is on coltan, its worldwide supply, and the increasing importance of tantalum as worldwide electronic demand skyrockets.

7)  Mantz, Jeffrey W. 2008. Improvisational economies: Coltan production in the eastern Congo. Social Anthropology / Anthropologie Sociale 16 (1):34-50.

The central focus of this paper is the “political economy” of the DRC, and the extent to which is has been devastated by worldwide demand for tantalum.

8)  Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges. “The International Dimensions of the Congo Crisis,” Global Dialogue, Vol. 6, No. 3-4.  (Summer-Autumn 2004).  pp. 116-126

This paper traces the origins of war in the DRC, and the extent to which demand for Congolese minerals played led to prolonged violence.

9)  “Report of the panel of experts on the illegal exploitation of natural resources and other forms of wealth of the Democratic Republic of the Congo”. United Nations. April 12, 2001.

This early paper on the crisis in the DRC details the history of the conflict, the reasons, major players, and explicitly examines the link between the exploitation of minerals and continued violence.

10)  Smith, James H. “Tantalus in the Digital Age: Coltan Ore, Temporal Dispossession, and “Movement” in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.” American Ethnologist 38.1.  2011.

This article concerns the positive and negative aspects of coltan production in the DRC.  The author “approach[s] coltan’s relationship to violence, autochthony, temporality, and political order by focusing on how it has become, for many, iconic of the elemental power of Congolese earth.”